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Cretonne

Cretonne is a light-weight single cloth, all cotton fabric, weighing from 2 to 5 ounces per yard, and composed of yarns ranging from l-40s to l-20s in the warp and 1--20s to 1-7s in the filling. It is usually woven with either the plain weave 1/1, 2/2, twill 45 degree, or a fancy effect resembling a granite weave, such as is used as a foundation weave in dress goods. The-fabric is woven with either an all bleached or gray cotton warp and filling, the patterns being fancy stripes and all over floral effects printed in bright colors upon one side of the goods. This gives the printed or face side of the fabric somewhat of the appearance of an elaborately figured jac-quard design. Those colors found most effective for this purpose are bright and medium shades of red, blue, green, yellow, etc, and a good jet black. Used for draperies and upholstery.

cretonne structure

The various grades are used for couch covers, draperies, lambrequins, and confortables or bed quilts.

History:
In 1640, a weaver of Vimoutiers, a smalltown in French Normandy, Paul Creton invents a new fabric made of hemp and flax : the "Cretonne". (more information about Vimoutiers here)

Carding and Spinning Particulars.

The division of mills making cretonnes would be the second (or those mills equipped with machinery for making yarns the counts of which vary from 20 to 80s). The counts of yarn used for cretonne vary from l-20s to l-40s warp and from 1-7s to 1-20s filling, according to the quality of cretonne required. In speaking of the second division of mills we do not mean to say that the count of yarn is always within these limits, but that When buying machinery, the specifications for the different machines are made out according to whether the machines are to use low, medium or a fine grade of raw stock. Of course, It often happens that yarns of a lower count or of a higher count are made on this machinery, but the great bulk of the yarns turned off are within the limits. For example, take cretonne: All grades of cretonne may be made in the same mill, although the count of the yarn varies from 7s to 40s,or in some cases even a finer yarn than this is used. For this article we will consider that the filling yarn is 1-20s and the warp yarn is l-40s. The length of staple used would be from 1 1-16 to 1% inches of a medium grade of cotton. The bales of raw stock would first be sampled and several bales of practically the same length of staple placed around the bale braakerand fed to this machine in small portions alternately from each bale. In this manner it is mixed better than if one entire bale was fed. If a bale breaker is not used the method would be just the same except that it would be done by hand. The lower count would use cotton of a length of 1 1-lfl inches and the higher count 1% inches. Both cottons would be put through an opener and two processes of picking. Keep your hopper of the opener well filled (over half full). The speed of the beater for both grades of cotton should be about 1,050 revolutions per minute; the speed of the fan about 350 revolutions per minute. See that 3'our pin roller is always clean, because if the cotton is allowed to accumulate, it cannot perform its duty properly. The cotton is fed to the feed rolls of the breaker beater and passed on to the beater, the speed of which should be about 1,050 revolutions per minute; a rigid two-bladed type. The total weight of the lap at the front should be about 40 pounds, or 16 ounces to the yard for both cottons.

THE FIGURED PATTERN to be produced upon the cloth has been engraved upon bronze rollers, which have been set tip in the printing machine. The colors are fed auto-matieally to the rollers, which, in revolving, register the colors upon the face of the cloth, as it passes between them.

The cloth is then dried by being run through heated rollers or drums, and the fabric is then rea:!y to be folded into suitable lengths to be packed and shipped. Four square inohes equals 7.95-grains. 29x36 equals 1,044x7.95 equals 8.299.-80 divided by 4 equals 2,074.95 divided by 437.5 equals 4.742 ounces per yard, 29 inches wide. 20 pieces white warp yarn equals x21//2 inches equals 50 inches equals .55 grains, 50x7,000 equals 350,000 divi.'.ed by .55 equals t;36,3G3 divided by 36 equals 17,399 divided by 840 equals l-20s cotton warp yarn. 12 pieces white filling yarn times 4 Inches equals 48 inches equals 1.55 grains. 48x7,000 equals 336,000 divided by 1.55 equals 216,774 divided by 36 equals 6,021.5 divided by 840 equals l-7s cotton filling yarn. 15 cents per yard, 29 inches finished. CONSTRUCTION. Reed, 900 minus 30 1-3 inches minus 2 ends per dent, 52 ends per inch fin-ished,40 picks per inch finished, equals 50 ends in reed, 38 picks in loom, 10 per cent take-up in weaving.

. The laps are doubled at the finisher picker four into one, the cut roving being mixed in at this point in the proportion of three laps of raw stock to one of bobbin waste. The speed of the beater should be about 1,450 revolutions per minute with a fan speed of 1,100 revolutions per minute. This gives the cotton passing through about 42 beats per inch. See that the grid bars under the beaters are properly set. The total weight of the lap at the frontshould be 39 pounds for the shorter staple cotton and 35 pounds for the longer, or a 14-ounce lap for the 1 1-16-inch staple and 12%-ounoe lap for the l^-inch staple cotton.

Keep the picker room clean and always calculate to have enough laps of each kind of cotton ahead so that if breakdowns occur the cards will not be stopped for want of laps. The draft of the finisher picker is about 3. The cards should be set as before described in a previous lesson, except that the feed plate should be set to the licker-in, according to the length of the staple.

Cards should be stripped three times a day and ground at least once a month. The wire fillet should be made of 34 wire (or 110s English count) for cylinder and 35 (or 120s English count) for. doffer and flats. Use 'as large a doffer as possible, say 26 inches at least. The draft of the card should be about 100 for both stocks. The weight of the sliver at the front of the card should be about 65 grains. The production should be 825 pounds for the shorter staple and 600 pounds for the longer one for a week of 60 hours. The card sliver is next put through three processes of drawing frames. A few of the more particular points to look out for are, scour the frames at least once a month, keep your leather top rolls in perfect condition and well oiled and barnished.

See that all knock-off motions are in working order to prevent single and double; keep the weight of your sliver uniform by sizing it at least twice a day and three times a day for fine yarns, doubling six into one at all frames. The weight of the sliver at the finisher drawing should be about 70 grains per yard. The drawing sliver is drawn into .50 hank roving at the slubber, the standard twist being found by multiplying the square root of hank by 1. The roving for the 20s yarn goes through two processes of fly frames.the hank at the first intermediate being 2 and at the second 5 hank. The 40s yarn roving is put through three processes, the hank roving at each process being as follows: first, 1.50; second, 3.50 and third, 9 to 9.50 hank, the doublings at all frames being two into one.

The sliver is then passed to the spinning room. In case the filling yarn is spun on a ring frame the following would be good particulars for the frame spinning 20s: Gauge of frame, 2% inches; diameter of ring, V/2 inches; length of traverse, 6V2 inches; speed of spindle, 7,300 revolutions per minute; twist per inch, 14.50; and for a warp frame spinning 40s: gauge of frame, 2% inches; diameter of ring, 1% inches; length of traverse, 6% inches; twist, 28.45. The warp yarn is then spooled, warped and run through a slasher.

 
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