Terry cloth or Turkish toweling is a fabric composed entirely of cotton yarns. In effect it is a single cloth, having rows of loops, formed by warp yarn, in regular order, on each side of the cloth. In making this fabric, it is necessary to use two beams. No. 1 or the bottom beam contains the warp for making the body or ground of the cloth. No. 2, the top or terry beam, contains the warp for making the loops in the cloth or terry effect. Terry cloth is used in the manufacture of towels and Turkish bath robes, and, as to color, there are solid bleached towels, towels having side and cross border color effects, also stripe patterns for the bath robes, favorite colors being navy blue, old gold, cherry red, light green, etc. The warps are of 2-20s to 2-30s cotton and the filling l-20s to l-30s cotton. Terry cloth Is a narrow fabric measuring about 25 inches from loom and can be made on the roller or cam loom or the dobby or jacquard loom, either style of loom of course having the terry motion attached; the jacquard machine being only necessary in making fancy border effects in conjunction with the filling box motion. Very good cross border patterns are produced on a mutual, loom, having terry motion and dobby attached. The terry weave is the three harness twill weave dissected, and the different parts of this weave placed together again in such a manner as to permit the forming of a series of loops on each side of the cloth in regular order, by the top or terry warp weaving slack, using only sufficient weight to permit of correct shed'Ung. In making terry on a roller or cam loom, four harnesses and four cams are necessary, two cams being warp, effect and two cams filling effect. The top beam containing terry warp is drawn in on first and third harnesses and the bottom or ground warp on second and fourth harness, reeded two ends per split and placed in the loom, the first and third harnesses being strapped up to the first roller, the second and fourth harnesses being strapped up to the second roller. The harnesses are then connected with the treadles at the bottom of loom by means of jack straps, these treadles being in turn operated by the cams, which are set on a cam shaft
|The terry motion is arranged thus: At the bottom of the loom, near the side, there Is a treadle, suspended in much the same manner as the cam treadles. To the treadle there is an iron (^ inch) rod attached and running up the inside of the loom and connected with an iron lever, which works upon a fulcrum, bolted to the loom side, the loom driving shaft rests in box or bearing on the side of the loom. This box is so shaped that it allows the shaft an eccentric motion, when the terry treadle is forced down by a cam, placed on the lower loom shaft for the purpose. When the terry cam, revolving on the lower loom shaft, strikes the terry treadle, the rod connected thereto pulls down on the lever connected with the box in which is resting the driving shaft, the whole action throws the loom shaft and loom sley forward out of line, and the top warp working slack the reed draws the yarn through; then the terry treadle regaining its original position, the loom shaft settles back to its correct position and the next pick of the loom binds in the slack warp, thus forming the loop in the cloth—the terry motion in this case working for two picks and stopping for one.
In weaving toweling on a roller loom, it being of short lengths of terry, the weaver allows the cloth to weave terry for any desired length, and to weave solid cloth without the loop. He throws the terry motion out of gear by dropping an iron finger down on the treadle. This holds the terry treadle out of the way of the revolving terry cam. This iron finger is usually either raised or lowered by means of a cord, fastened to the inner side of the breast beam and near the end of the loom. This finger can be worked automatically by the use of a dobby motion or jacquard machine. The terry warp, by weaving slack and forming the loops, will weave out at the rate of about 100 per cent faster than the ground warp. It is then replaced by twisting another warp to it, this operation taking place at the loom and without removing the harnesses. A good grade of terry cloth can be made as follows: Reed—900, two ends per dent, 27 inches in reed; 2-30s cotton ground warp; 2-30s cotton terry warp; l-30s cotton filling; 30 picl<s. Width from loom, 25 inches. To be drawn and woven as. stated above for a roller loom.