TEXTILE DICTIONARY AND TERMS RELATING TO TEXTILE
Damask. Named for ancient city of Damascus where elaborate floral designs were woven in silk. Damask is flatter than brocade and is reversible. The pattern changes in color on the wrong side or, in table damask the contrast of warp and filling satin reveals the pattern. On the right side of linen damask the background is in warp face satin with the design in filling face satin. On the wrong side the figures are reversed.
Drapery and upholstery damask originally made of silk on hand looms. Modern damasks arc of wool, silk, rayon, mercerized cotton or combinations of these. See Lampas. Uses: upholstery, hangings. Weave—Jacquard. Width, 50"
Damasks in wool and silk are sometimes fashionable for wraps and dresses.
(a) Linen. Both Jacquard patterns and satin weave are called damask. The best grades are "double damask" because of the fineness and construction of the cloth. The satin weave of which the pattern is formed is an "8-shaft" satin meaning that each yarn passes over seven and binds the eighth. The lower grades with Damask (table linen) Right side of double damask
looser weave have "5-shaft" satin construction with every yarn skipping four and binding the fifth. Both are sized, calendered and beetled. Double damask is more compact and may be thinner than single damask. The former is more beautiful and will last longer. It has a firm, leathery feel. Table damask is woven by the yard or in pattern cloths. The latter is in greater demand. Weave—Jacquard. Napkins, 12", 13", 14", 16", 18", 20", 22", 24" square. Cloths
(b) Cotton damask is used extensively for tablecloths and napkins, particularly for institutions and commercial dining halls. The background is usually made of filling face satin, the reverse of linen damask. Basco* is a trade name for a special linenized finish on cotton cloths.
Degumming. Process of removing natural gum or sericin
from silk. May be done before weaving or afterward as in
the case of georgette.
Delaine. French term "de laine" meaning "of wool".
1. Old name for challis.
2. Fine quality wool grown in Ohio.
From the French town of Nimes, "serges de Nimes". Heavy cotton twill made of coarse yarns.
1. Overall denim is indigo blue or dark brown. Yarn dyed. Indigo superior to other blues. Denim is sold by weight. Eight ounce indicates two yards to the pound. "White back" denim, made with brown or blue warp and white filling " Double and Twist" means yarns are doubled and then twisted. Denim shrinks in washing. Uses: overalls, children's play suits, aprons for workmen. Weave— twill. Width, 28", 29".
2. Drapery denim is finer and has softer finish than overall denim; usually yarn-dyed and woven in small geometric figure. Uses: couch covers, upholstery, hangings, slip covers. Weave—twill or figure. Width, 36", 54".
Denier (pr. de-neer). An old French coin. Unit of measurement for weight of raw silk and of rayon yarns.
Devonshire. See gingham.
Diagonal. General term meaning a broad or conspicuous twill.
Diana.* See Sunfast curtain fabrics.
Diaper. Originally a rich, silk fabric woven in a small diamond shaped pattern. See Birdseye.
Dice. Pattern in table cloth formed of squares in satin or
Origin from Latin dimitum, of double thread.
1. Light-weight fine cotton fabric with corded stripes
or bars. White, printed or dyed. Good quality
wears well. Poor grade tends to split on stripe due
to uneven strength of warp and filling yarns.
Uses: lingerie, infant's wear, pajamas, dresses.
Weave—plain. Width, 30", 32".
2, Bedspreads called dimity are like seersucker with
puckered stripes. Light-weight, wash well, used in
hospitals and other institutions. Also called
crinkle spreads. Sizes most used are: 63" by 90",
81" by 90", 90" by 100". Ripplette* is a trade
Dip-dyeing. See Dyeing.
Direct printing. The simple method of printing cloth. Woven goods receives color from engraved rolls or blocks m much the same way as paper is printed (distinction from warp printing). See Discharge and Resist Printing.
Discharge Printing. Fabric is piece-dyed, the color afterward removed in certain places by the action of chemicals. Example: blue percale with white dots.
Dobby. Loom on which small figure weaves may be produced.
Doeskin. 1. Heavy twilled cotton fabric napped on one side. Used for backing on artificial leather and for sports coats. 2, Woolen fabric with short napped surface.
Domet. Old term for a napped fabric similar to outing flannel.
Domestic. Originally goods made in this country. Now, coarse cotton fabrics as ticking, many of which are used for household purposes. Domestics are grouped with t adding.
Double cloth. Cloths woven with two sets of warp and one filling, one warp and two fillings, two fillings and two warps or with a fifth set of binding yarns to unite the two cloths. Example: double-faced coatings, ribbons and Jacquard blankets. Both sides may be alike or show a pattern reversed in color. Weave—twill, satin, Jacquard, combined in various ways with various finishes.
Double damask. See Damask.
Drap. French for cloth.
Dresden. Refers to color effect in designs (usually warp
printed) which resemble in delicacy the famous Dresden
i. Size made of gum, glue, starch, China clay,
etc., used to finish cotton, linen and silk goods.
of finishing cloth.
3. Weighting of silk.
Drilling. Origin Latin " trilix ", three threads. Stout, twilled
cotton material, bleached, unbleached or piece-dyed usually unbleached. Light weight drill called Jean or Middy Twill. A khaki-colored drill is called Khaki. Known by weight as 2.50 meaning 2.50 yards in one pound. Other common weightsare 2.85 and 3.00. Uses: uniforms, pocket linings, middy blouses. Weave—twill. Width, 28", 30".
Drop box. Device on a loom for supplying different colors of filling yarns for stripes or filling yarns of different twist as in Japanese crepe. See Box loom.
Drop-stitch. Striped open effect in knit goods produced by dropping needles out of the work at intervals.
Drugget. Coarse wool rug or floor covering made in India.
Druid's cloth. Name for a drapery fabric similar to Monk's cloth only coarser,
Duck or canvas. So called because it sheds water. Heavy, close, cotton fabric. Strongest ducks have double warp yarn. Made to specification for Army and Navy uses. Bleached, unbleached, dyed or printed. Sold by weight as 8 ounce or 10 ounce meaning I yard weighs 8 or io ounces. For clothing, launders well with starch. Weights: 8, io, 12, 14 up to 25 ounces. Uses: Heavy grades for tents, awnings, boat sails, tarpaulins, aprons and belts in machinery; lighter weights; outing suits, middies, physicians' coats, interne's uniforms, cook's coats, waiter's and butcher's aprons (black and white check for cook's pants), press cloths used in tailoring.
Duretta.* Trade name for middy twill or jean. Used for nurses and physicians' uniforms, middies, children's suits.
Duvetyn. French "duvet"fordown. (pr. duv-teen). 1. Soft woolen fabric with spun silk or mercerized cotton back. Fine, downy nap raised with an emery cylinder. Not intended for hard wear. No longer on the market. Uses: Coats, suits, dresses. Weave—twill. Width, 54". 2. Spun silk woven with mercerized cotton warp and emerized. Known as silk duvetyn. Not adapted to hard wear. Uses: millinery, trimmings. Weave—twill. Width, 40".
Duplex. See Fabric gloves.
The process of coloring materials.
1. Cross-dyeing. Method of dyeing striped or checked fabrics which contain yarns of animal and vegetable fibres. For example, in a cotton and wool mixture, cotton yarns, dyed first, then woven with wool and dipped in a dye for wool which will not take on cotton.
2. Dip-dyeing. Hosiery and other knit goods dyed after knitting. Corresponds to piece-dye for woven goods.
3. Ingrain. Hosiery yarn-dyed before knitting as distinguished from dip-dyed. Contrasting color in stripe at top or closing of heel and toe identifies ingrain hose.
4. Piece-dyeing. Same as Dip-dyeing.
5. Stock-dyeing. Fibres dyed before spinning. Origin of expression "dyed in the wool".
6. Yarn-dyeing. Yarns dyed before weaving as for plaids or stripes