TEXTILE DICTIONARY AND TERMS RELATING TO TEXTILE
Fabric. Cloth, goods or textile material woven or knitted of any textile fibres.
Fabric gloves. Made from warp-knit cotton fabric, lisle or sueded. Chamoisette* and Chamoisuede are trade names, Gloves are made of single fabric or two layers fastened together by a patent process. Silk gloves are made from warp-knit fabric in silk. Wool gloves are usually made from jersey.
Faille (Fr. pr. fy-c, English pr. file). Soft, flat-ribbed silk fabric. Ribs are wider and flatter than grosgrain. Wears well if not too loose in weave or heavily weighted. Uses: dresses, trimmings. Weave—variation of plain. Width, 36", 40".
Fashioned. Hose permanently shaped in the knitting process as distinguished from seamless hose. No seam is necessary but a mock seam is often used to imitate full-fashioned. Manufacturer required to add his name or qualifying statement to word " fashioned " so as to distinguish the product from "full-fashioned" which is more expensive.
Fast color fabrics. Many brands of dress and drapery fabrics in cotton and linen guaranteed not to fade in sun or washing or both. Everfast*, Pamico*, Polly Prim*, Peter Pan*, Year round*, Indian Head* and Diana cloth* are examples of trade names for guaranteed fabrics. Weave—plain. Width, 36". Fastness of dye. Property of dye to retain its color when cloth is exposed to sun or washing. The term fastness is a comparative one as a dye may be extremely fast to washing and only moderately fast to light. Remarkable progress is being made in the dyeing of fast color cottons and rayon.
1. Process. Wool fibres tend to tangle and mat when moisture, heat and friction are applied. It is now believed that the interlocking of the minute, epidermal scales on the fibres does not fully explain felting.* Shrinking, the same as fulling or milling, is merely an early stage of the felting process.
2. Felt for hats is produced by steam and pressure applied to fibres. Rabbit fur is most commonly used. Low grade felt hats are made from wool, the best felt contains beaver fur.
3. Wool felt may be woven and shrunken or made by pressing (similar to felt hats). Thickness, weight and texture vary according to use. May be strong and compact or thin and porous; may be hard and board-like or spongy and elastic. Uses: billiard table covers, pennants, hats, counter mats, chair pads, insoles, ink pads; polishers for finishing furniture, automobiles and marble; parts of pianos, sewing machines, laundry machinery,vacuum cleaners, artificiallimbs, blackboard erasers,corn plasters. Weave —plain, twill or pressed fibres. Width, 54", 72".
4. Cotton felt is not related to felt. See Table Felt or padding.
Fibre rug. Twisted paper used as yarn, woven with cotton, or cotton and wool in a Jacquard pattern. Reversible.
Fibre silk. See Rayon.
Filament. Single natural strand of silk. The silk worm produces two filaments which are glued together with sericin. See degumming.
Filet. Developed from fishermen's nets. Found in early handmade lace having knotted square mesh; also in hair nets. Filet net See Net. ♦Matthews, J. Merritt, Textile Fibres,
1. Same as weft or woof. Yarn for the shuttle. Each crosswise yarn is called a " pick ".
2. Refers to finishing materials on cotton, as starch, China clay, also to weighting of silk. See Weighting.
All the processes through which cloth is passed after leaving the loom in preparation for the market.
Fire-proof fabrics. See Asbestos, Non-flam.
Flannel. Light weight, washable, soft, woolen fabric with napped surface. It was originally made from carded wool, but is now often made from either wool and cotton, or wool and synthetic fibre.The term "flannel" is also often used to refer directly to the clothing created from flannelette.
1. Baby flannel. White, soft, woolen fabric in wool, or mixtures with silk or cotton. Smooth or napped surface. Uses: infants' wear. Weave—plain or twill. Width, 25", 27", 30", 36".
2. Dress flannel—when in vogue, many interesting colors and finishes are offered. Weave—twill. Width 27".
3. Shirting flannel. Various weights, colors and textures for different purposes. Weave—plain or twill. Width, 27", 36", 42".
4. Viyella flannel. Trade named fabric made in England. Cotton and wool in equal amounts mixed before spinning. Made in different widths, weights and colors. Uses: shirts, dresses, sports wear, infants' wear. Weave—twill. Width, 31", 46".
Flannelette. Cotton fabric, napped on one side. Plain, striped or printed. See Kimono flannel.
Trade name for a group of fabrics including dimity, India linon, batiste, voile, organdy. White, piece-dyed or printed. Name Flaxon stamped on the selvage. Materials attractive, durable and launder well. Made from fine, combed cotton yarns, gassed and more or less mercerized. Sherette*, a similar fabric. Uses: infants' wear, blouses, lingerie, dresses. Weave—plain. Widths vary.
Flat crepe. Silk dress fabric, alike on both sides, of texture similar to crepe back satin. Heavier and richer looking than Crepe de Chine. Widths, 40", 54".
Flat Knit. See Plain knit-Fleece. 1. Entire coat of wool as sheared from the animal. 2. Fleece wool means clipped, not "pulled wool".
Fleeced. Means napped.
Flexible net, elastic net or J. C. cloth (Jockey Club). A closely woven millinery fabric of cotton, pliable and soft, yet with a wiry appearance. Less stiff than duck cloth but similar weave. White or cream. Use: foundation for soft rolled brim on hats. Weave—leno. Width, 40".
Floats. Warp or filling yarns which lie free on the surface of the cloth. Yarns not bound or woven for some distance, as in coarse damask.
Flock dot. Same as composition or paste dot. Dots or figures on Swiss or voile when not woven or embroidered but applied chemically. Dots are usually permanent and washable.
Very short wool fibres resulting from different processes in woolen and worsted manufacture. Used to increase weight of low grade woolens. May be blown in after weaving and fulled to make a solid fabric.
Fold. 1. Same as ply in yarn. 2. Refers to layers of cloth on the bolt. Flat fold means goods rolled without doubling. Bookfolds for narrow fabrics are folded once lengthwise and twice crosswise in such a way that they open bookwise from the centre. Observe damask napkins.
Footing. Nets are made in narrow widths for ruffling. >£"to6".
Forestry cloth. Originally made for U. S. Government Forestry Service. Used for outing shirts and suits. Kind of flannel in "winterfield shade" or olive drab.
Fortuny print. Art fabric made in Venice. Secret printing process originated by Fortuny gives to cotton cloth the effect of antique brocades. Historic patterns used and adapted. Rare color effects obtained. Uses: wall hangings, screens, curtains, table covers. Weave—plain or twill. Width, 30". Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo (1871-1949) was one of the most creative minds of his time. He mainly worked in Italy and he was renowned for his Art Nouveau textiles that included fine-pleated silk gowns, lustrous silk and velvet scarves. He created gowns that have become surrounded by myth: see DELPHOS model at The Metropolitan Museum New York
Foulard (pr. foo-lar). French, meaning silk handkerchief. 1. Soft, light silk fabric. Always printed (direct or discharge). Wears very well. Usually unweighted. Uses: dresses, kimonos, linings. Weave—twill. Width, 27", 40". 2. Soft, highly mercerized cotton fabric resembling silk foulard in texture. Plain or printed. Weave—twill. Width, 32", 36".
French foot. Hose with one seam in middle of sole. A full-fashioned hose.
French serge. See Serge.
Friar's cloth. Drapery fabric of coarse texture in basket weave. Resembles Monk's cloth and Druid's cloth.
Frieze (pr. freez). Originated in Ireland. Heavy woolen overcoating having a nap on the face. Similar to Chinchilla cloth, but a lower grade fabric. Yam- or piece-dyed. Uses: overcoats, mackinaws. Weave—double cloth with twill construction. Width, 54".
Frise. From the Latin "crispare (crispus, frise)" to curl. Pile fabric (usually mohair) of uncut loops. Designs may be produced by contrast of cut and uncut loops, by different colored yarns or by printing the surface. Friezette* is a trade name. Use: upholstery. Weave—pile. Width, 27", 28".
Fulling. See Felt.
Full-fashioned. Hose or other garments shaped in the knitting. Selvages joined in seams. Hose require a second machine to complete the foot. Costs more, holds its shape, and fits better than seamless hose.
Large class of pile fabrics of spun silk or mohair which imitate fur. By dyeing and special finishes the texture of -various furs is obtained, as Hudson seal, beaver, moleskin, astrachan, etc. Wild silk is often employed in silk plushes. Mohair is most commonly used. Weave— pile. Width, 50". See Plush, Mohair.
ecks, plaids or stripes, or may be plain color. Washes well and usually holds dye. Thin, coarse ginghams tend to shrink. Uses: dresses, shirts, aprons, children's clothes. Weave—plain or fancy. Width, 26" to 40". Name of Indonesian origin, imported in Europe by Dutch, produced in Manchester (England) from the second half of the 18th century.
1. Apron checks. Coarse, stiff, checked fabric. Any color with white. Use: aprons. Width, 26", 27".
2. Chambray. Plain colored gingham, often having white filling. Width, 27", 32".
3. French. See Zephyr.
4. Nurses' or Red Cross gingham. Heavy blue and white striped, closely woven. Uses: nurses' uniforms, house dresses. Width, 32".
5. Scotch ginghams are those made in Scotland. Fine quality, beautiful colors and plaids.
6. Tissues are thinner than ordinary ginghams. Often have heavy cord in stripe or check or embroidered design. St. Gall tissues from Switzerland are famous for their beauty.
7. Zephyr ginghams and French ginghams used for dresses. Fine, light weight, soft finished, attractive coloring and designs. Made in America.
The following are trade named fabrics related to ginghams. Heavier and closer than gingham. Devonshire, Kiddie Kloth* Surf cloth, Kindergarten cloth* Romper cloth* Uses: children's clothes, dresses. Weave—plain. Width, 32".