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An etamine is a thin, slightly glossy fabric used principally for women's dress goods. Being a very popular material for summer wear, it is usually made in what is commonly known as a piece dyed fabric that is, woven with undyed yarn. A good reason for making it a piece dyed fabric is that it is much cheaper than, if the yarn is dyed previous to the weaving. Etamines are dyed in almost any color. Blue, black, red and various shades of drabs seem, to be very popular. The interlacing of the warp and weft is on the one and one order, or plain weave.
The openness or transparency of the fabric is due partly to the smooth, hard-twisted yarn and partly to the weave. Etamines were originally made with worsted yarns, which, of course, are much more expensive; however, if a good quality of cotton is used there is little difference in appearance between worsted and cotton etamines. The difference would be chiefly in the wearing quality, worsted of course being more durable. The principal feature of an etamine is to have it a crisp.glossy and an open fabric.

ANALYSYS OF FABRIC Width of warp in reed, 27% inches; width of fabric finished, 26 inches. Heeed, 500 —2 ends per dent. Total ends in warp 740, including selvedge. Take-up of warp during weaving, 12 per cent. Weight of fabric from loom, 3 ounces per yard; weight of fabric, finished, 3 ounces per yard. No shrinkage during the finishing process.

LOOM REQUIRED. This character of fabric could be woven on any roller or dobby loom, a roller loom being preferable, principally on account of the comparatively low rate of expense the latter could be operated at.
FINISH. Etamines, as before mentioned, are usually woven with undyed yarns, or in the gray. The cloth, after reaching the dyehouse, is first subjected to a scouring process, then dyed, after which it is given a medium sizing; then it is calendered, which in a great measure accentuates the gloss upon the fabric and also imparts to it the crisp feeling which characterizes an etamine. It is then measured.rolled and papered, after which it is ready for the merchant. Cotton etamine sells from 12 cents to 20 cents per yard. Carding and Spinning Particulars. The cloth of which the weaving particulars have been given is sometimes made of all cotton yarn or a combination of cotton and wool or cotton and linen, or a combination of wool, silk linen and cotton fibres. For the carding and spinning particulars of this lesson we will consider that the fabric is made up of cotton yarns in both the warp and filling .


Generally, however, the mill of the second division is used. The cotton used would be peeler of about Xhi inches length of staple. A number of bales (enough for a mixing) should be brought from the cotton shed and placed in the picker room. The overseer should sample each of the bales and those not up to staple should be placed to one side. Several of the other bales should be placed around the bale breaker and a little fed to the breaker from each bale alternately This will help to produce a MORE EVEN MIXING, which will help to give a more evenly finished yarn.


The bales that have been laid aside should either be used in a cheaper mixture or should be shown to the cotton broker and either returned or have an allowance made for them. The bale breaker should be kept on this cotton until it is all put through. The cotton is conveyed from the bale breaker'to the mixing bin by endless lattices,which is the old method, or by having a blower and trunking and an endless lattice as is the newer and more modern method. When a blower is used in conjunction with the bale breaker the cotton is In a more dried out condition when it reaches the bin and consequently it does not have to stand as long to dry out before using. A blower will pay for its first cost many times over. At the mixing bin the good waste from all machines up to the slubber is mixed in as it is collected.
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