Textile lover's diary



Sateen or satine

Mercerized cotton fabric in satin weave
which in the better grades resembles satin made of silk.
True sateen has the filling on the surface while the better
qualities as Venetian have the warp on the surface.  White, dyed or printed.   Some lining sateens have a twill weave. Heavy striped variety used for men's coat sleeve linings. Printed or yarn-dyed. Width of latter, 40".  Uses: linings, petticoats, draperies, bloomers, comforters.  Weave—satin. Width, 30", 32", 36".


  I. Name of a basic weave.  Most lustrous surface possible.   Warp yarns arranged to conceal the filling, or vice versa, thus making a smooth, shiny surface.    In table damask the Jacquard pattern is produced by the contrast of warp face and filling face satin. Double faced satins, as in ribbon, are made with two sets of warp and one of filling.    See Crepe-back satin.
2.         Silk Fabric with satin wreave. May be all silk or have cotton back. Also in rayon as Baronette satin.* Light weight satin is called messaline.
3.         Duchesse. General term for rich, heavy silk dress satin, when in vogue.
4.         Lining. Usually lighter in weight than dress satin. May be all silk or have cotton back.   See Merveilleux.
5.         Wash Satin. May have cotton back finished for laundering. White, flesh color and other light colors. Uses: blouses, brassieres, lingerie.   Width, 36".


Another name for spun silk.


  Kind of calendering which produces a high,
lustre on cotton cloth, usually on lining fabrics as sateens.
Steel rollers covered with finely engraved lines, 400 to 700
per inch, press the cloth with weight of two tons.  Lustrous
effect, not permanent. Scotch wool rug. Flat woven, reversible rug. A type of ingrain.


  Coarse, open fabric with little sizing.   Distinguished
from  marquisette  which  has  characteristic  leno   weave.
Scrim is coarser than voile, usually mercerized, white, ecru,
plain or fancy woven or printed border.    Uses:   curtains
needlework.  Weave-plain.  Width, 36", 50".
 Scroop.   The rustle or crunch of silk developed by treatment
with dilute acids. Seamless.  Hose knitted, one at a time, on circular machine.
Sea Island. Cotton grown on islands off southern coast of the United States. Noted for its fineness, length and silky appearance.  Used for fine thread and delicate fabrics.
Sealskin cloth. Fabric imitating sealskin, with pile of wild silk, dyed black.
Seco. See Silk and cotton mixtures.
Seconds. Fabrics or knit goods with flaws or imperfections, from the factory. Labelled as seconds and sold at lower price. Defective garments called irregulars.
Seersucker. I. Light-weight cotton fabric, with alternating crinkled stripes. This is done by holding alternate groups of warp yarns slack in the loom. May be laundered without ironing. Ripplette*, a trade name. Uses: children's clothing, house-dresses. Old use, tan or gray and white for office coats. Weave—plain. Width, 29" or 32". 2. Bedspreads are made with crinkle stripes called dimity. See Austrian cloth and Ripplette*.
Sello*. See Silk and cotton mixtures.
Selvage or selvedge. Also called "list". Finished edge on a woven or knitted fabric.
Semi-fashioned. Seamless hose with mock seam to imitate full-fashioned. Confusing term.
Serge. Fabric of twill weave with four harnesses 2/2.
1.         Mercerized cotton lining material used for coat linings. Weave—-twill. Width, 32".
2.         Mohair lining f abricf or men's overcoats. All mohair or cotton warp with mohair filling. Weave—twill. Width, 32".
3.         Silk. See Surah.
4.         Worsted dress fabric. Seldom has cotton warp. Sometimes combined with rayon for variety in texture. Serge is often cravenetted. No wool fabric, more universally used than serge. Many weights and finishes. The twill runs from upper right hand selvage diagonally to lower left hand selvage on right side. It is just the reverse on the wrong side. The right side of the cloth is folded in when rolled on the bolt.
Storm serge is a coarse, wiry and more or less heavy
variety.    French serge  is  very  fine  and  smooth  and
always wears shiny.
Light weight qualities of serge are made in narrow width. Uses: dresses, suits, coats, caps.  Weave—twill.  Width, 36", 44", 50", 54", 60".
Sericin.  The natural gummy substance surrounding the silk fibre (fibroin).  Removed by "boiling off." Serpentine Crepe.* See Crepe. Shade cloth. See Holland.

Shaker. Heavy jersey knitting for athletic or school sweaters.
Seven to fourteen two-ply yarns used. Shaker flannel.  Originally made in gray by communities of Shakers.   Wool, cotton or mixed fabric napped on both sides.   Now,  usually cotton,  white,  unbleached or gray. May be softer and thicker than outing flannel. Uses: inter-linings, diapers, underwear.   Weave—plain.   Width, 24", 26", 30", 36".
 Shadow print. See Warp print.
 Shantung.   Heavy grade of pongee, or cotton fabric or silk
and cotton mixture.  See Pongee.
 Sheer. Very thin, diaphanous; as sheer organdie.
 Sheeting.  1. Cotton. Heavy white or unbleached muslin, any width between 36" and 108". Referred to by quarteryards as % (4 quarters) equals 36".   Better qualities are made from 2 ply yarns both warp and filling, and have firm, close weave, with little dressing.    Poor grades contain much sizing. Twills are sometimes used for greater strength in hospital sheets.    Uses:   sheets, pillow cases, uniforms, aprons. Linen sheeting is like cotton sheeting except for its composition.   Linen sheets stay clean longer than cotton, feel smoother, keep whiter, and are more beautiful but they wrinkle and absorb moisture which is objectionable in a damp climate.  Tightly twisted uniform yarns are desirable.    Linen sheeting is used largely now for lunchcloths, napkins, skirts and uniforms. Weave—plain. Width, 72". Shepherd's plaid or Shepherd's check.   Name of all fabrics with small even checks in black and white.  Made in wool, cotton,  and various  combinations  of wool  and  cotton.
Sherette.* See Flaxon*.
Shiki rep. See Rep.
Shirting silks (also called tub silks). Wash silks usually in plain weave with satin stripe in color. Durability depends upon character of yarns and closeness of weave. Uses: men's shirts, women's blouses and dresses. Weave—plain or fancy with satin stripe. Width, 36", 40".
Shoddy. See Remanufactured wool. Silk and rayon fabrics or yarns are also converted into fibres, called silk shoddy or rayon shoddy.
Shot. 1. The same as pick. 2. Changeable effect, as in silk by use of filling colors different from warp.
Showerproof. 1. Process which renders fabric waterproof or spotproof. 2. Registered trade mark for a fabric having this finish.
Shuttle. Device used to carry weft or filling yarns back and forth in the warp to form cloth.
Shrinkage. The amount of contraction to which most fabrics are subjected from the loom to the finished state. 1. In wash cotton, the shortened length after washing is due to releasing the tension of yarns which have been stretched and sized.   2. For wool shrinkage see Felt (process).
Sicilian.  See Brilliantine.
Sign cloth. Muslin heavily sized for printing.
Silcot.* See Silk and cotton mixtures.
Silence cloth. Soft, cotton fabric napped on both sides or quilted goods similar to bed pads; used under table cloth to protect table and avoid noise of dishes. Width, 64", 72".
Silesia. Originally made in Silesia, a province of Prussia. Closely woven, light-weight, smoothly finished cotton fabric. White, piece-dyed or yarn-dyed (striped). Uses: dress linings, heavy grade for trousers pockets. Weave— twill. Width, 27", 28", 30".

Silk and cotton mixtures. Large class of materials combining
cotton warp and spun silk, wild silk or rayon filling or silk
stripes in warp.  Fancy weaves and prints.  Durability depends upon strength of filling yarns which are often light causing goods to split when under strain. Sold in dress goods and lining sections. Known by various trade names as A.B.C.* Seco, Aledo, Sella* Sticot* Tezzo* etc. See Canton fabrics. Uses: linings, dresses, curtains, undergarments. Weave—plain or Jacquard. Width, 27", 32", 36".
Silkaline. Thin, soft, glazed, cotton fabric, plain or printed. Lustre is lost in washing. Does not soil easily. Uses: comforters, linings, curtains.  Weave—-plain.  Width, 36".
Silk floss.  See Kapok.
Silk gauze. Term loosely applied to thin silk curtain fabric of plain weave and to rayon and cotton curtain goods of leno construction.
Singeing. See Gassing.
Sizing. Finishing process. Yarns and cloth treated with stiffening substance to give strength, stiffness and smoothness. Size may contain starch (potato, wheat, corn, sago), glue, casein, gelatin, gluten, minerals, wax, gum, paraffin, and antiseptic substances.
Slip cover fabric. Many drapery materials used for making slip covers for chairs and davenports, as linen crash, warp print, cretonne, etc.
Smyrna. Kind of chenille rug that is reversible. Flat color or figured.
Snia-fil. Artificial or manufactured wool fibres made in Italy. Introduced into the United States in 1926. It is a cellulose product; rayon filaments broken into short lengths and curled to give wooly and dull appearance.
Soiesette* (pr. swa-zet). Trade named fabric of fine, smooth, even texture, highly mercerized; launders exceptionally well; in white, plain colors and prints. Name stamped on the selvage. Uses: dresses, linings, curtains, pajamas^ shirts, children's clothes.  Weave—plain. Width, 32", 36",
Souple. A dull effect obtained in silk dyeing by removing a portion of the gum.
Spinning.   Process of twisting fibres together to produce a yarn or thread.   Fine spun yams require great skill and entail much expense;  used only in high grade fabrics and laces.
Splicing. Hose re-enforced by different kind of yarn in heel or toe, usually cotton to add strength.
Split foot. Black hose with white or Egyptian cotton sole.
Sponging. Process of shrinking wool goods before making. Sometimes done to keep cloth from water spotting.
Sports silk. Wide variety of novelties used for sports wear, many of which are known by trade names as Khaki Kool* Ruff-a-nuff.* Rayon is often combined with silk or cotton.
Spring needle. Type of needle used in making silk hose and some fine underwear.
Spun silk. Yarn and cloth made of silk filaments which cannot be reeled from the cocoon. Silk is broken into different lengths, carded, combed and spun. Used extensively in knit goods, pile fabrics and in combination with cotton. Spun silk is distinguished from reeled silk which is stronger, more lustrous and more expensive.
Stafford cloth.   See Mercerized dyed fabrics.
Staple. 1. Any kind of textile fibre. Term used as an index of quality or fitness as "long staple.'' 2. Any fabric or article sold year after year in contrast to a novelty.
Stock-dyeing. Process of dyeing fibres in raw state before spinning.
Stockinette. Elastic fabric, flat or tubular, made on a knitting machine. Used for infants' sleeping garments and diapers.

Strand. Weight of silk hose, designated by number of strands used in knitting. Reeled silk is composed of filaments from several cocoons. Six is average number; 5 to 7 are unwound at a time Twelve strand hose means the yarn is made of 12x6 or 72 filaments of silk which are counted before degumming. Each filament represents two filaments fastened together with silk glue. Therefore after degumming there will be 72x2 or 144 single filaments in a 12 strand yarn. Chiffon hosiery may have 2, 4 or 6 strand yarns; 10 or 12 is average weight;  14 strand is very heavy.
Suiting.   General term applied to a variety of weaves and finishes.  Many novelties are introduced from time to time. Light weight for women's wear, heavier for men's suits. Weave—plain, twill or fancy.  Width, 48", 52", 54", 56
Sunfast materials.  See Mercerized dyed fabrics.
Suede finish. Produced on novelty wools and warp knit cotton fabrics for gloves. See Fabric gloves. Surface is emerized as for duvetyn, or cloth is passed between carborundum cylinders which raise a fine nap resembling chamois leather.
Surah. Soft twilled silk, often woven in plaid. Heavy grade of twilled silk is called "silk serge." Wears well unless heavily weighted. Uses: waists, dresses. Weave—twill. Width, 36".
Surgeon's gauze. See Hospital gauze.
Swatch. Piece of cloth used as a sample.
Swiss. So called because first made in Switzerland. Fine, sheer, cotton fabric which may be plain or embroidered in dots or figures. White or piece-dyed or embroidered in colors. Design may be introduced by swivel weaving which produces shaggy surface on one side. Flock dot or figure may be applied chemically. Swiss is crisp or stiff without a lustre. Uses: dresses, aprons, curtains. Weave—plain with swivel or lappet design. Width, 28", 32", 36". Curtain Swiss may be plain, dotted or figured. It is always stiff or crisp in appearance with no lustre or polish. Colored dots or figures are sometimes used on a white ground. Launders well, but tends to shrink. Weave-plain with swivel or lappet patterns. Width, 36", 40".
Swiss rib. See Rib.
Swivel. Pattern of dots, as in Swiss, or small figures woven in ribbon. Differs from embroidery or lappet weaving. Swivel patterns are formed by tiny shuttles carrying extra weft, which weaves a figure (often in contrasting yarns or colors) while the regular weft or filling is operating. The wrong side has a shaggy appearance where ends of swivel weft have been cut.


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