Textile lover's diary



Umbrella fabric. Made of silk or cotton or mixtures in plain or twill weave. Waterproofed; yarn-or piece-dyed; many colors; fancy borders.  See Gloria.
Unfinished worsteds. Worsteds that have a nap developed on the surface which is given a very light shearing so that the woven pattern is obscured. Term, a misnomer because this process is a finish on worsteds which are ordinarily unfinished after weaving.

Union. Fabrics having warp and filling of different fibres, as union huck with cotton warp, linen filling.
Upholstery velour. See Velour.        
Upland cotton. General classification of all cotton grown in the highlands of the South. Short staple cotton, distinguished from long staple as Egyptian, Sea Island and Pima.

Vanity silk. Trade name for a kind of warp knit fabric used in underwear. Veiling. Net fabric of cotton, silk or rayon. Fancy weaves and novelty patterns for face veils. Maline is a variety of veiling.

Velour or velours.  (Fr. pr. ve-loor.)
1.         General term for pile fabrics.
2.         Drapery fabric with short pile, usually of mercerized cotton; also mohair and silk may be pressed flat (panned) or in figures. Rich looking and durable. Uses: hangings, couch covers, upholstery. Weave—pile. Width, 50", 54".
3. Woolen dress fabric, so called because of velvety texture due   to   dull  rich   looking  nap.    Catches dust.   Poor qualities wear off and wrinkle.  Uses: dresses, suits, coats.
Weave—twill. Width, 54".

Velvet.   Broad a.nd inclusive term which covers all warp pile fabrics except plush and terry.  Plush is a variety of velvet
with a pile longer than yi inch.  Velveteen is a general term that should cover all weft pile fabrics though it is usually
defined as meaning a cotton velvet.   All-silk velvets have a silk back.   Most velvets have cotton back and silk pile.
May have silk warp and cotton filling with silk pile called "silk warp" velvet.  The ground weave may be plain, satin
or twill, formed by warp and filling.   The pile loops are carried over wires and cut with a knife blade fastened at
the end of the wire or by shearing. Many velvets are woven double, face to face, and cut apart while still on the loom
by a small knife which moves back and forth like a shuttle, Velveteens and corduroys are weft or filling pile fabrics,
having the pile loops or floats cut by a knife after weaving.
1.         Brocaded velvet. See Brocade.
2.         Chiffon velvet. Light weight, pile laid flat by pressing. Width, 40", 50".

3.         Costume velvet. Wide velveteen (cotton velvet of good quality). Better grades have highly mercerized pile; beautiful texture, durable. Width, 27", 36", 40", 44". Uses: dresses and suits.
4.         Millinery or hat velvet. Usually called Lyons velvet. Generally has an erect pile (silk) somewhat deeper than costume velvet. In poorer grades pile is not thick. Width, 17 H", 18", 19", 24".
5.         Mirror velvet. Highly finished velvet produced by calendering.  Pile is pressed flat or in different directions.
6.         Panne velvet. Heavier, closer pile than chiffon velvet. High grade fabric having pile laid flat and pressed to give lustre. Weave—-pile. Width, 18", 36".
7.         Paon velvet. Heavier than panne with more pile which is also laid flat.  Used for millinery purposes.  Width, 18".
Velveteen. Fabric with short cotton pile made in imitation of silk velvet. Uses: dresses, coats, hats, linings for drawers and cases, theatrical curtains.


Venetian cloth. I. Mercerized cotton fabric, heavier than and superior to sateen; warp face satin, same as farmer's satin. Uses: linings, petticoats, aprons, pillows. Weave— satin. Width, 36". Better grades for lining men's overcoats. Weave—-satin or twill or combination in stripes. Width, 32", 36", 54"-2. Fine, soft wool dress goods, resembling prunella only softer. Somewhat fulled but weave is apparent. Uses: dresses,   suits.   Weave—-twill   or   warp   satin".
Vicuna. Wool from a small goat-like animal in South America. Very rare. Sometimes this name is given to a soft wool fabric.
Vigoureux. Named for the inventor. Process of printing worsted fibres before spinning to give a mixed color effect. Now used as a name of a fabric which shows a dark and light effect produced by vigoureux yarns.
Virgin wool. Any wool which has not been previously manufactured into cloth.
Viscose. See Rayon. One of the processes by which rayon is produced.
Viyella.* See Flannel. Clydella*, a similar fabric contains less wool.
Voile. Thin, transparent, soft clinging cotton fabric made from two-ply yarns, tightly twisted. Dainty and durable. Poorer quality of single yarns becomes fuzzy and is difficult to handle in sewing.
1.         Cotton dress voile. White, dyed or printed. Used for undergarments. Weave—plain.  Width, 36", 40".
2.         Rayon dress voile. Beautiful in texture.
3.         Curtain voile in cotton or mercerized cotton is finer than scrim and a little heavier than dress voile. White, ecru, colors. Weave—plain, novelty, stripe or figure. Width, 40".
4.         Wool voile dress goods is thin, smooth and wiry, made from worsted yarns very tightly twisted. Durable, does not wrinkle, sheds dust. Not always in style.

Wale. Lengthwise line of loops which corresponds to direction of warp in woven fabric. Shows on right side of jersey and on both sides of rib knitting.
Warp. Set of yarns which run lengthwise in a piece of cloth. See End.
Warp knit fabrics. Used in gloves, underwear, and some hose. Made on a special knitting frame which produces a flatter, closer and less elastic material than other knit goods as plain or rib fabric. Some coats, suits and blankets, made of warp knit fabric and napped. Glove silk underwear is made of milanese or tricot. Vanitysilk is a trade name. Swami cloth,* a trade name for a fabric used in brassieres; made of cotton, silk or rayon or combinations.
Warp pile. Fabrics woven so that an extra set of warp yarns form the pile.
Warp print or shadow print. Silks, ribbons and cretonnes woven with plain filling on a printed warp which gives a faint and shadowy design.   See Chine.
Wash silk. Fabrics finished for washing. Shirtings and dress fabrics in plain and novelty weaves.  Usually 33".
Waste silk. Noils left after combing the vmreelable filaments in the cocoon for spun silk. Carded and spun like cotton and used as silk shoddy in low grade mixtures or in novelty goods requiring a dull, limp effect. Used in cartridge cloth for machine guns.
Watered. See Moire.

Waterproofing. Process of rendering fabrics waterproof or moisture repellent; the latter describes most so-called waterproof fabrics. Produced by treatment with aluminum salts. Actual waterproofing done by impregnating fabric with solution of crude rubber or preparation of oils and paraffin. See Craveneite*.
Weave. The interlacing of warp and filling yarns with each other to form cloth.
Web. Refers to warp or partly woven cloth in the loom.
Weft knit.  Fabric constructed by simple knitting process as distinguished from warp knitting.  A broken yarn causes a runner.
Weight of cloth. Many fabrics are sold by weight as wool goods for men's suits.  Ex.: 8 oz. serge.  See Duck.
Weighting. Addition of any substance to increase natural weight of fabric. Usually refers to weighted or "loaded" silks which contain metallic salts as chlorides or sulphates of iron, tin, aluminum or magnesium. Rice powder or sugar solution may increase weight of silk. Cotton or linen may be weighted with sizing, China clay, etc.
Welt. Hem or garter top of hose.
Whip cord. Twill with pronounced diagonal cord. See Gabardine.
Width. 1. Distance between two selvages of cloth. 2. Edges of flat knit fabric.
Wigart. Canvas-like cotton fabric, closer than crinoline, in varying degrees of stiffness. Colors, black, white, gray and tan. Uses: interlining for front of men's coats. Weave— plain. Width, 34".
Wild silk. Coarse, tan or natural color filament produced by species of silk worm which cannot be cultivated. Found in pongee.
Willow. Two-ply millinery fabric made from fine strips of woody fibre woven and pasted to crinoline. There are three grades; one stiff, one medium stiff and one without crinoline back. Originally made in Italy and Bohemia, but since the War largely in Japan. Uses: hat frames for velvet and cloth hats.  Made in sheets, 24", 30".
Wilton. Kind of carpet, first made in England; cut pile fabric; back usually of cotton, may be hemp or jute; pile of woolen yarns or of worsted for the better grades, called Royal or French Wilton. Colors in pattern controlled by Jac-quard loom. Carpet by running yard 27" wide or rugs made to standard sizes. The following, most commonly used: 27" by 54"> 36" by 63", 4'6" by 7'6", 6' by 9', 8'3" by io'6", 9' by 12', 9' by 15', 9' by 18'.

Woof. Some as weft or filling.
Woolen. I. Cloth which has been fulled or shrunken after weaving, and finished by brushing or napping, shearing and polishing to a greater or less degree. Broadcloth and chinchilla cloth are examples. 2. Yarn used for knitting or weaving made from fibres (usually short and curly)
which have been mixed loosely before spinning. They tend to shrink more than worsted yarns.
Worsted. I. Cloth made from worsted yarns as serge and gabardine. There is little finish after weaving which leaves a smooth surface with distinct weave. 2. Yarn made from fibres (preferably long and hair-like) which have been laid parallel before spinning. It is possible to combine some short fibres with long ones, but true worsted contains long wools. Worsted yarns are superior to woolen for knitting and carpets. They are necessary to produce a worsted type of cloth (see above).




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